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辩论技巧:仁爱版初一英语上册各单元重要知识
添加时间:2019-10-10
   Unit 1 Making New Friends 1. good morning/ afternoon / evening 早上/下午/晚上好 2. glad / nice to meet / see you 见到你很高兴 3. welcome to + 地点 欢迎来到…… 4. let’s + v 让我们做…… 5. stand up 起立 6. sit down 坐下 7. this is... 这是…… 8. thanks = thank you 谢谢 9. see you = see you later = goodbye 再见 10. ID number 身份证号码 11. be from=come from 来自 12. in English 用英语 【重要句型】 1. ---What’s your name? ---My name is Sally. 2. ---Where are you from? ---I’m from China. ---Where do you come from? ---I come from China. 3. ---Where is he/ she from? ---He/She is from Japan. 4. ---What’s this/ that in English? --- It’s a/ an… 5. ---What’re these/ those in English? ---They’re… 6. ---How do you spell it? ---E-R-A-S-E-R, eraser. 7. ---Can you spell it? ---Yes, M-A-P, map. 8. —How old are you/ is he/ are they? —I’m/ He is/ They are eleven. 9. —What’s yourtelephone number? —It’s 4567967. 10. —What class/ grade are you in? —I’m in Class Ten, Grade Seven.(注意大小写) 11. Good morning/ afternoon/ evening. 12. —Hello!/Hi! —Hello!/Hi! 13. —Nice/Glad to see/meet you. —Nice/Glad to see/meet you, too. 14. —Welcome to China/my home. —Thanks. 15. —How do you do? —How do you do? 16. —How are you? —Fine, thank you. And you? —I’m OK. 17. —See you then/ later. —See you. 18. —Goodbye. —Bye. 19. —Thank you. —You’re welcome./That’s OK./Not at all. 【重点语法】 1. 元音字母:Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu 包含有以下元音的字母: [e] Aa Hh Jj Kk [i:] Ee Bb Cc Dd Gg Pp Tt Vv [aɪ] Ii Yy [ju:] Uu Qq Ww [e] Ff Ll Mm Nn Ss Xx Zz 2. 大小写 句首字母,人名,地名,称呼语,专有名词,星期的首字母要大写,引人注意。 • Look!Is that Jane? • He comes from Hubei, China. • Mr. Wang, this is my mom. • —What class are you in? —I’m in Class Ten, Grade Seven. • On Sunday, we go to the West Hill for a picnic. 3. Be动词的用法 • 我用am,你用are,is用于他、她、它,单数用is,复数就用are。 • 含be动词的陈述句变否定句在be后加not,变一般疑问句将be提前。 • 一般疑问句的肯定回答:Yes, 人称代词+ be;否定回答:No, 人称代词+be + not。 如:---They are teachers. ---They are not teachers. ---Are they teachers? ---Yes, they are./ No, they aren’t. 4. 不定冠词、定冠词和and的用法 (1)不定冠词a, an的用法 a /an 都表示“一,一个”,a 用在以辅音音素开头的单词前,如:a book; a desk; an 用在以元音音素开头的单词前,如:an apple / an orange/ an English book;/ an English boy/ an old man;/an actor/ an English teacher/ an office worker. (2)the是定冠词,表特指,单复数前面都可用 • We are inthesame class. • Thegirl in a pink skirt is Jane. • Where isthebook? • This isn’t my bike.The blue one is mine. (3) and的用法 • 数字相加看做单数:Two and three isfive. • 颜色相加也是单数: Black and white isgray. • 人和事物相加是复数:Lucy and Lily are sisters. The pen and the eraserareJane’s. 5. 可数名词单数变复数 (1)规则变化 ① 一般在名词词尾加-s,如:car---cars; photo---photos; toy---toys; boy---boys ② 以s, x, ch, sh结尾的词,在词尾加--es,如:box---boxes; bus--buses ③ 以辅音字母+y结尾,变y为i再加es,如:baby--babies; family--families 4)以fe结尾,变fe为v再加es,如:knife--- knives (2)不规则变化 如:foot---feet; man---men; woman---women; snowman---snowmen; (3)集体名词:people, clothes, police, family (4)成双出现的名词:shoes, pants(trousers), gloves, eyes, ears 九. 一词多义:An orange(桔子)is orange(橙色的). Unit 2 Looking Different 1. give sb. sth. = give sth. to sb.把某物给某人 Please give it to her. 2. look the same 长相相同 look different 长相不同,看起来不一样 3. look like 看起来像 Helooks likehis father. = He and his father look the same. 4. next to 在……旁边 The boy next tome is my good friend. 5. in +颜色 穿着……颜色的衣服 in +a/an +颜色+衣服 穿着……颜色的…… The boy in a yellow T-shirt and gray pants is my good friend.6. (1) both两者都(be动词之后,实义动词之前) They both have brown hair and black eyes. They are both office workers. (2)all 三者或三者以上都 They are all kind to me. 7. 数字+(形状、大小)+颜色+n. two big red apples She has short blond hair. 1. Who is your favorite actor? 2. We are in the same school, but we arein different grades. 3. What do/does +主语+look like? ……长得怎么样? ---What does he look like? --- He is not very tall but very strong. 4. We don’t look the same, but we are good friends. We look the same, but we are in different clothes. 5. ---What color is/are +主语?---It’s/ They’re +颜色. ---What color is her hair? ---It’s blond. 6. This is my cap. = This cap is mine. Is this your cap? = Is this cap yours? ---Whose cap is this? = Whose is this cap? --- It’s Sally’s. ---Whose are these bananas? --- They’re their bananas/ theirs. 7. His pants are blue and mine are white.(mine=my pants) My T-shirt is green and his isbrown.(his=his T-shirt) 8. I have small eyes, but he has big ones.(ones指代eyes) My jacket is blue and white. That one is blue. (one指代jacket) 【重点语法】 1. 动词原形和动词第三人称单数形式 (1)主语是第三人称单数形式(he、she、it;单一的人;单一的名字;单一的事物),动词要用单三形式。实义动词变第三人称单数的规则: ① 一般情况直接加“s”,如:come---comes,meet---meets ② 动词以o,s,sh,ch, x结尾,加“es”,如:do--does; go--goes; teach--teaches ③ 以辅音字母+y结尾,变y为i,再加es, 如:study--studies, fly--flies, try--tries ④ 特殊情况:have--has (2)句型转换 ① 当主语为第三人称单数:变否定句时,在动词前加doesn’t, 动词现原形;变一般疑问句时,在句首加does,动词现原形。 一般疑问句的肯定回答:Yes, 人称代词+does;否定回答:No, 人称代词+doesn’t. 如:She has small eyes. ---She doesn’t have small eyes. ---Does she have small eyes? ---Yes, she does. /No, she doesn’t. ② 当主语为第一、第二人称变否定句,在动词前加don’t,变一般疑问句,在句首加do,肯定回答:Yes, 人称代词+do;否定回答:No,人称代词+don’t. They have small eyes. ---They don’t have small eyes. --- Do they have small eyes? ---Yes, they do. / No, they don’t. 2. 表示所属关系 (1)名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词 形容词性物主代词 my your his her our their its 名词性物主代词 mine yours his hers ours theirs its • --Whose is this pen? Is it yours? • --No, it’s not mine. My pen is blue. (2)名词所有格 ① 用于人或其他表示有生命的名词后: • 单数或不以s结尾的复数+’s,如:Jane’s book;Women’s Day • 以s结尾的复数+’如:Teachers’Day • Lucy’s and Lily’s bags 分有 Lucy and Lily’s room 共有 Those are Jane’s shoes.= Those shoes are Jane’s. ② of 表示所属关系,用于没有生命的物体,如:a map of China;a photo of my family Unit3 Getting Together 【重点短语和句型】 1. Could you please + 动词原形……?用来表示委婉的请求 ---Could you please tell me your name? --- Sure/ No problem. My name is Sally. --- Sorry. 2. tell sb. sth. = tell sth. to sb. 告诉某人某事 tell sb. about sth. 告诉某人关于某事 Please tell me your name. = Please tell your name to me. Please tell Maria about it. 请把这件事告诉玛丽亚吧。 3. help sb. do sth.= help sb. with sth. 在某方面帮助某人,帮助某人做某事 Please help us find him. Could you please help me with English? = Could you please help me study English? 4. want to do sth.= would like to do sth. 想要做某事 want sth. = would like sth. 想要某物 want sb. to do sth. 想要某人做…… He wants to visit Beijing. = He would like to visit Beijing. I want/would like an orange. Jane wants Kangkang to sing some songs with her. 5. show sth. to sb.= show sb. sth. 把某物展示给某人看 Maria shows a photo of her family to Kangkang. 6. My English is very good. =I can speak English very well. 7. live in+ 地点 居住在某地 live with + sb. 和某人住 He live in China with his parents. 8. know a lot about…… 知道许多关于……的事 He knows a lot about China. 9. say表示说话的内容,speak表示说某种语言的能力 What does he say in the letter? He can speak some English. 10. 对事物的喜欢程度 like……very much/a lot 非常喜欢 like……a little 有点喜欢 don’t like……at all 一点都不喜欢 Many students in our class like English a lot, but I like it a little. He doesn’t like chocolate at all. 11. a lot of+可数名词复数/不可数名词 I have a lot of English books. 12. every day 每天 each other 相互 some of them 他们中的一些 eat out 下馆子,到外面吃饭 13. play with sb. 和某人一块玩耍 like to do/doing sth. 喜欢(做)某事 She likes to play with Kitty. 14. Help yourself/yourselves to sth. 随便吃(喝)…… 15. be kind to sb. 对某人很友好 They are all kind to me. 他们对我很友好。 It’s very kind of you. 你真好。 16. be glad to do sth. 很高兴(乐意)做…… I am very glad to be here. 我很乐意在这里。 Glad to meet you. 很高兴见到你。 17. let sb. do sth. 让某人做某事 Let me see.让我想一想。 Let us help you find him. 让我们帮助你找到他。 18. I am home. 我到家了。 Maria isn’t at home/in now. 玛丽亚现在不在家。 Welcome to my home. 欢迎来我家。 It’s time to go home. 该回家了。 【单元知识点详解】 1. 实义动词变一般疑问句及其回答 ---Does he speak English? -- Yes, he does./ No, he doesn’t. 2. 询问职业及工作地点 ---What does your mother do?(书面) /What is your mother?(口语) --- She is an English teacher. ---Where does she work? --- She works/ teaches/studies in a school / hospital / restaurant / on a farm / in an office... 3. 介绍家人 This is a photo of my family. The young woman in red is my mother. Is the young woman in red your mother?(变一般疑问句) Who is the young woman in red?(对划线部分提问) My grandparents, my cousin and I are on the sofa. I have a big family. 我有一个大家庭。 I love my family. 我爱我的家。 4. 就餐表达语 1) ---Would you like something to drink ? 想不想喝些东西? ---Yes, a glass of apple juice , please. / No, thanks. something to drink 一些喝的东西 something to eat 一些吃的东西 2) ---What would you like to have / eat / drink ? 你想吃(喝)些什么? ---I’d like some rice and chicken. / Let me see. 我想想看。 3) Would you like to have dinner with me? 想和我共进晚餐吗? ---Yes, I’d love to. / Yes, I’d like to. --- I’m sorry, I have to… 4) ---What do you usually have for breakfast? 你通常早餐吃什么? ---I usually have milk and bread for breakfast. have…for breakfast/ lunch / dinner 早/午/晚餐吃...... 5) ---May I take your order, sir? 请问,要点菜了吗? ---Fish with vegetables and rice , please. 6) May I help you ? = Can I help you ? =What can I do for you ?请问要吃/喝/买些什么? 5. 委婉地请求、提建议的五种表达 Would you like sth. / to do…? 你愿意/想……? What / How about sth. / doing…? ……怎么样? Why not do…? 为什么不……? Let’s do…! 让我们干……吧! Why don’t you do…? 为什么不……? 肯定回答:Yes, I’d like/love to. /Good idea. /OK. / All right./ I’d love that. 否定回答: No, thanks. / I’m sorry I can’t, I have to do…/ I’d like that, but I’m sorry I have no time. 【重点语法】 1. 人称代词的主格与宾格 点拨:主格在句子中充当主语,放在动词之前;宾格放在动词之后构成动宾短语,放在介词之后构成介宾短语。 ---Do you know them? --- Yes. They are my new classmates. 2. 可数名词与不可数名词 (1)可数名词:可以用数目来计数的名词,有单数和复数之分。 如:banana, egg, apple, orange, noodles, vegetable, hamburger等。 (2)不可数名词:不能用具体的数目来表示,前面不能加a/an,没有复数形式。 如:milk, chicken, bread, Coke, coffee, rice, juice, fish, tea, water, chocolate等。 (3)不可数名词若要表示数量,可用:数词+量词+ of + 不可数名词。 如:a glass of milk 一杯牛奶;ten bottles of apple juice十瓶橙汁;ten loaves of bread 十条面包 (4)some/ a lot of +可数名词的复数/ 不可数名词 many +可数名词的复数 much +不可数名词 【书信的格式】 1. 称呼:顶格写,常用Dear… 开头,表示亲切、客套,后面用逗号。 2. 正文:从称呼的下一行开始写,开头空两格。 3. 结束语:正文下面的客套话,写在右下角,首字母大写,末尾用逗号,常用Yours。 4. 签名:指写信人的签名,写在结束语的下面。 Unit4 Having fun 【重点短语和句型】 1. buy sth. for sb. = buy sb. sth. 为某人买…… Linda wants to buy a toy car for her cousin. = Linda wants to buy her cousin a toy car. 2. try on sth.= try sth. on 试穿 try it/them on(固定搭配) Maria tries on the coat in a clothes shop. 3. The coat looks very nice on you. 你穿上这件外套真漂亮。 4. That’s fine. We’ll take it. 好的,我们就买它了。 5. I am just looking. 我只是随便看看。 6.“Are you kidding?”你在开玩笑吗? 7. think 想,认为 think about 考虑 think of 认为 Kangkang thinks it’s Li Ming’s. I’ll think about it. 我要考虑一下。 think about a plan 考虑一项计划 What do you think of this yellow skirt? 8. Thank you all the same. 仍然感谢你。 9. get some wate 取水 fly a kite / kites 放风筝 sing some songs 唱歌 meet friends at home 在家和朋友见面 have a picnic=go (out) for a picnic 去野餐 get up 起床 go home 回家 go fishing 去钓鱼 go shopping=do some shopping 购物 go to the zoo 去动物园 go to the West Hill 去西山 visit a friend 拜访朋友 call … back 回电话 do one’s homework 做作业 take one’s order点菜 take some bread 带一些面包 see the Monkey Show 看猴子表演 10. ask sb. to do sth. 请/要某人做某事 Could you ask her to call me back this evening? 你能让她今晚给我回个电话吗? 11. need sth. /to do sth. 需要(做)某事 We need to help them with their English. 我们需要帮助他们学英语。 We need two kilos of apples and some rice. 12. have / has to do sth. 不得不/必须做…… Kangkang has to cook. 康康必须要做饭。 Kangkang doesn’t have to cook. (变否定句) 13. save 节省,攒钱,挽救 Big sale! Buy more and save more! 大降价!买得多,省得多! Ben can save ¥5. 14. here 这里 there 那里 Here you are. 给你。 Here it is. 在这。 Here we are. 我们到了。 The clothes are there, madam. 夫人,服装在那边。 ---Where is Baby Monkey’s home? --- It’s there. 15. be free = have time 有时间,有空 Are you free this Sunday? = Do you have (any) time this Sunday? I’m sorry I have no time. = I’m sorry I don’t have any time. 16. It’s time to do sth / for sth. 该做某事了,是做某事的时候了 It’s time to have breakfast.= It’s time for breakfast. 17. Thank you for your help. = Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你的帮忙。 18. at eight o’clock 在八点整 in the morning / afternoon / evening 在早上/下午/晚上 on Sunday moring在星期天早上 19. on one’s way home 在某人回家的路上 on one’s way to school 在上学的路上 Buy some eggs and rice on your way home. The Baby Monkey can’t find his way home. 【单元知识点详解】 1. 购物表达语 1) ---Can I help you? / May I help you? ---Yes, please. I want to buy some clothes for my daughter. / I’m just looking, thanks. 2) ---What can I do for you? ---I want a T-shirt for my son. 3) ---Can I try it on? / Why not try them on? --- Sure / No problem. 4) That’s fine. We’ll take it. 5) 280 yuan! Are you kidding? I’ll think about it. Thank you all the same. 6) ---Could you help me do some shopping? --- Sure. What do we need? 7) ---Is that all? 就那些吗? --- Yes, I think so. 是的,我想就这些。 8) ---It’s too heavy. 它太重了。 ---Let me help you. 让我帮助你吧。 2. 询问对事物的观点、看法 ---How do you like this pair of pants?=What do you think of this pair of pants?你认为这条裤子怎么样? --- They’re too long. / I don’t like it at all. How about the blue one? 3. 询问数量 how much +不可数名词 + …? how many+可数名词(复数) +…? ---How many apples do you need? ---We need two kilos of apples. ---How many bags of rice do you need? ---We need five bags of rice. ---How much rice do you need? ---We need five bags of rice. 4. 询问价格(price) ---How much is / are ……? ---It’s / They’re ……. ---How much is the bread? ---It’s three yuan a loaf. ---How much are the shoes? ---They are 280 yuan. 5. 询问重量(quantity) ---How heavy is it? --- It’s one kilo a bag.一千克一袋。 6. 打电话的简单交际用语 1) ---Who is this, please? ---This is Sally. 2) ---May I speak to Maria? ---Sorry, she isn’t in/at home now. 3) ---Are you free this Sunday? ---Yes. What’s up? 4) ---Would you like to go to the West Hill with us? 5) ---Could you ask / tell him to call me back this evening? ---Sure. 7. 委婉地请求、建议 1) ---Would you like to fly a kite with me? ---Oh/Yes, I’d love/like to. 2) ---How/What about flying a kite with me?---I’m sorry I can’t. I have to cook. 3) ---Why not fly a kite with me? ---I’d like that, but I’m sorry I have no time. 4) ---Let’s fly a kite. --- Good idea. / OK. / That would be very nice. 8. 询问时间(time) ---What time is it, please? / What is the time, please? ---It’s seven o’clock. 9. 询问最喜欢的动物 ---What are your favorite animals? ---Elephants/Monkeys/Panadas/Tigers. They’re so/very kind/clever/cute/strong. 【重点语法】 1. 时间表达法 (1)直接表达:“时+分”,如: 4:00 four o’clock ; 12:05 twelve o five;2:30 two thirty (2)30分钟以内:用“分+ past+ 时”,表示“几点几分” 如:8:15 a quarter past eight; 9:30 half past nine (3)超过30分钟:用“(60-分)+ to+(时+1)”表示“差几分到几点” 如:3:55 five to four ; 5:40 twenty to six 2. some与any 的用法 some 用于肯定句及希望得到肯定回答的疑问句,any用于否定句和疑问句中。 She wants some oranges. Does she want any oranges? What about / Why not have/ Would you like some chicken?